Cervix is the lowest portion of the Women’s womb which connects uterus to Vagina. The Cervical Cancer is developed when the lowest part of women’s Uterus (called cervix) experiences abnormal growth of tissue which invades and with time affects the other nearby organs of the body too. According to the records of the National Institute of Cancer Research and Prevention, Cervix Cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in women in India after Breast Cancer.

Research also says that 22.86% of cancer types in women is Cervical Cancer and 12% of total cancer types found in men and women. Other than this the Globocan 2012 data says that:

  • Every year India experiences 1,23,000 new cervical cancer patients.
  • The death number for cervical cancer is around 67,500 which is almost 50% of the total number of cases diagnosed.
  • One woman is dying in every 8 minutes in India because of Cervical cancer.
  • The age group of 21 – 67 years are at the highest risk of cervix cancer in India. The median age of cervix cancer is 38.
  • The rate of survived people from cervix cancer is about 48.7%.

The cervical cancer is mostly diagnosed in the rural women as compared to urban ones. Also, the records say that the Hindu women are more at risk than the Muslim ones.

These stats are genuinely terrifying, but this can be controlled if the proper treatment is taken. Therefore, it is suggested to go for cervical cancer screening on time. Read the complete article, to know in detail about the cervical cancer risk factors/ causes, symptoms, stages, and prevention.

Causes of Cervical Cancer

cervical cancer causes

There are a number of risk factors which are associated or which can lead to the abnormal/ uncontrolled growth of cervical tissue.

  • Human Papillomavirus(HPV) Infection: HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. There are total 100 types of HPV out of which 13 can cause cervical cancer. So, to minimize the chances of HPV infection avoid having multiple sex partners.  
  • Tobacco Smoking: Smoking and Tobacco is always a risk/ cause behind many cancer types.
  • Overuse of contraceptive pills: The continuous and long-term use (about five years) of the same type of contraceptive pills may lead to cervical cancer.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD): Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis are some of the Sexually Transmitted diseases which can become a reason behind cervical cancer.
  • Becoming Sexually active before age: A sexual contact with an infected person or having sex before maturity can be harmful to the female body. Also, if a woman has multiple sex partner, then she is in the danger zone of being affected by HPV infection.
  • Giving Birth to a Baby at the young age: Always go for the doctor’s prescription before planning to have a baby. A woman of age under 20 years and is giving birth to a baby is more prone to cervical cancer compared to those women who gave birth to their first baby after 25 years.
  • Several Pregnancies: A lady undergone three separate pregnancies is more likely to get diagnosed with cancer compared to the lady with no pregnancies. Proper care is the best treatment for this cause.
  • Weak Immune System: The weak immune system is again a significant factor responsible for cervical cancer. Because of weaker immunity, it becomes easy for the Virus and Bacteria to infect the body. A weak immune system reflects the deficiency of white blood cells (cells that fight against foreign cells) in the body.
  • Stress: Stress is very harmful to the health as it is challenging to kill HPV if a person is suffering from mental stress.
  • Socio-economic Status: The research reflects that the most of the cervical cancer cases come from the areas having low-income.  

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

cervical cancer symptoms

In most of the cervical cancer cases, the major drawback is that it doesn’t show any signs at the early stage. So, to eliminate the possibility of getting caught by cervical cancer cells, go for the regular test like pap test (Pap test doesn’t diagnose cancer, but it is helpful in judging the changes in cells which may lead to cancer) or cervical smear.

The common symptoms of cervical cancer which a lady can experience are:

  • Pelvic Pain
  • Uncomfortable sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding in Post-menopausal women
  • Increase in Pain with the advancement of stage
  • Abnormal/ smelly vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Urinary tract or bowel obstruction can lead to Kidney failure

These were the major symptoms which a lady can experience. But they may vary which means a lady might suffer no signs at the initial stage or may suffer more severe symptoms than this. So, we can say, the rate of cervical cancer infection entirely depends on its health and living environment.

Stages of Cervical Cancer

cervical cancer stages

The doctors determine the stage of cervical cancer according to the diagnostic/ detection test reports. The stage of cervical cancer is assigned to the patients according to their development of cancer and whether it is influencing the body organs or not.

In total there are four stages of cancer, but we define cervical cancer as a five-stage disease. The stages are as follows:

Stage 0: In stage 0, the cancerous cells are present in the body but are not known to the patient as well as to the doctor. No impact on the body in this stage.

Stage 1: In stage 1, the cancerous cells grow from the surface to the deeper section of tissues of the cervix, most possibly positioning into the uterus.

Stage 2: If the cancer cells have reached out of the cervix and uterus but not reached beyond the walls of the pelvis or the lower part of the vagina, then you are at the second stage of cervical cancer. In this stage, the nearby lymph nodes may or may not be affected by this.

Stage 3: In the third stage, the cancer cells are present at the lower end of the vagina or on the walls of the pelvis. It may also block the uterus passage from where the urine is carried out from the bladder.

Stage 4: This is the last stage of cervical cancer. In this stage, the cancerous cells have started to move out from the pelvis. This is the metastasis stage of cervix cancer as the cancer cells affect nearby organs like the liver, bones, lungs, and lymph nodes.

Cervical Cancer Preventions

If you are diagnosed with cervical cancer, or you fall into the risk of getting diagnosed with cervical cancer, the best method you should opt instead of treatment is prevention as the treatment might leave you with some side effects. Note that prevention method is most useful for the initial stage, but it plays a side role in treating the higher danger stages. So, the various prevention methods of cervical cancer are:

Go for HPV vaccination programs

HPV is one of the primary cause of Cervical Cancer. Therefore, by sticking to the various HPV vaccination programs, the rate of cervical cancer can be reduced.

Say NO to Smoking

If you have a habit of smoking, then leave it as Smoking can lead you to many different types of cancers.

Delay the first sexual intercourse

Sexual Intercourse at the young age is always risky for the woman’s health. Therefore, it is suggested to delay the first sexual intercourse for better health. For good health, consult with the doctor.

Safe Sex

We have suggested you for taking HPV vaccination, but vaccination can only save you from two strains of HPV. The other types can still cause cervix cancer. Therefore, use a condom during sexual intercourse in order to prevent HPV infection.

Cervical Screening

This is also an effective way to prevent cervix cancer. The cervical screening will help you in detecting the changes to the cells of the cervix. Note that this screening will not diagnose cancer.

Avoid multiple sex partners

The higher the number of sex partners of a woman, the higher the possibility of transmission of HPV. So, avoid having multiple sex partners in order to prevent cervical cancer.

These were some of the measures whose avoidance can help you in avoiding cervical cancer. Other than this, good hygiene and environment can also be beneficial for you. If you are experiencing any of the cervical cancer symptoms, read about the cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment methods for proper guidance. Also, you can book an appointment with our doctor for expert advice.

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