Lung cancer is the commonest form of cancer also known as lung carcinoma that is caused due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the Lung. These abnormal cells grow to form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lungs. A majority of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking. It damages the lining of lungs that may lead to the death of the patient.
- The lung cancer is strongly related to cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arise due to the result of tobacco. The risk of developing the lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the time period for which smoking has occurred.
- Tobacco smoke consists of over 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which are cancer-causing or carcinogenic. Primary carcinogens in tobacco smoke are nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The risk of acquiring lung cancer diminishes every year as smoking cessation because the normal cells grow and replace the degraded cells in the lung. Also in former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer becomes that of a nonsmoker after 15 years of cessation of smoking.
- Nonsmokers who share living or working space with smokers are at the risk of developing lung cancer.
Other causes of lung cancer are:
- Exposure to asbestos fibers: Cigarette smoking increases the chance of acquiring an asbestos-related lung cancer.
- Exposure to radon gas: It being a natural radioactive gas which is a decay product of uranium emits ionizing radiation can enter anywhere.
- Familial predisposition: Individual genetic susceptibility, also play an important role in the causation of lung cancer.
- Lung diseases: Presence of certain diseases of the lung, be it a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or pulmonary fibrosis increases the risk of lung cancer.
- Prior history of lung cancer: Survivors of lung cancer have a greater risk of developing a second lung cancer.
- Air pollution: Around 1%-2% of lung cancer deaths are attributed to breathing polluted air.
- Exposure to diesel exhaust: Exhaust from diesel engines is made up of gases and soot which significantly increase in the risk of developing lung cancer.
Lung cancers are of two types: small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).
These two types of cancers show growth and spread in different ways.
- SCLC: It comprises of about 20% of lung cancers and is most aggressively growing cancer. It is directly related to cigarette smoking.
- NSCLC: It is the most common type which accounts for about 80% of all lung cancers. It comprises of several types: like Adenocarcinomas, Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas, large cell carcinomas and mixtures of different types of NSCLC also are seen.
The various signs and symptoms of lung cancer are as follows:
No symptoms: In almost around 25% of people getting lung cancer, the cancer is first discovered through a routine chest X-ray or CT scan in form of a small solidarity mass like a coin lesion. Generally, patients often do not report any symptoms at the time the cancer is discovered. So never avoid early signs of lung cancer.
General symptoms related to the cancer are:
- Shortness of breath,
- Chest pain,
- Coughing up blood (hemoptysis).
- May have shoulder pain that travels down the outside of the arm (called Pancoast syndrome)
- or paralysis of the vocal cords leading to hoarseness.
- Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia).
- Symptoms related to metastasis include excruciating pain, some neurologic symptoms of blurred vision, headaches, seizures, or symptoms of stroke such as weakness or loss of sensation in parts of the body.
- Nonspecific symptoms include weight loss, weakness, and fatigue.
- Psychological symptoms are depression and mood changes.
Read detailed symptoms of lung cancer in male and females
A wide range of diagnostic procedures are used to diagnose lung cancer which are:
- The history and physical examination: It reveals the symptoms or signs that are suspicious for lung cancer. Signs of breathing difficulties, airway obstruction, or infections in the lungs.
- Chest X-ray: Chest X-ray often involves a view from the back to the front of the chest as well as a view from the side. They may reveal suspicious areas but are unable to determine whether they are cancerous or not.
- CT (computerized tomography) scans: It may be performed on any body part wherein multiple images are taken to cross-sectionally view the body.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): These scans are appropriate when precise detail about a tumor is required
- Bone scans
- Bronchoscopy: Examination of the breathing airways by bronchoscopy may reveal the areas of the tumor.
- Needle biopsy: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is done through the skin and is particularly useful when the tumor is peripherally located in the lung.
- Blood tests: Routine blood tests separately cannot detect lung cancer, they can only reveal biochemical or metabolic abnormalities in the body causing cancer.
Staging involves the evaluation of a size and penetration of tumor into the surrounding tissue. It also determines the metastasis in the lymph nodes or other organs.
NSCLC are given a stage from I to IV in order of severity:
- In stage I, the cancer is present only in the lung.
- In stages II and III, the cancer is confined to the chest
- Stage IV cancer has spread from the chest to other body parts.
In case of SCLC:
- Limited-stage (LS) SCLC refers to cancer that is confined only to its area of generation in the chest.
- In extensive-stage (ES) SCLC, cancer has spread far away from the chest to other parts of the body.
Treatment for lung cancer primarily has either surgical removal of cancer, or chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, and at times combinations of these treatments.
Targeted therapies and immunotherapy are also effective in lung cancer treatment.
The decision of choosing which cancer treatment will be appropriate for an individual is determined by taking into account the location and extent of the tumor and overall well-being of the patient.
In India, CANDROL is emerging as the only hope for terminal cancer patients and for newly diagnosed patients combining both CANDROL and conventional therapies to reduce disease load immediately.
There is no contradiction with any other therapy is noted so far so CANDROL can thus be taken along with any other parallel therapy.
The prevention of recurrence of cancer to the maximum extent possible is only possible by CANDROL
The quality of life enhances by the use of CANDROL to a great extent
CANDROL- acts as a “cancer vaccine” for a variety of cancer condition, so the use of CANDROL blood lung cancer treatment as a prophylaxis is tremendous in noncancerous population to fight the “carcinophobia” especially for those people who have a strong family history of cancer.
So, book an appointment with Dr. Rishi for satisfactory guidance and understanding and be relieved from the disease.